Two of the most popular command line tools you can use to test your storage drive performance are hdparm or dd.
Hdparm is a nice tool focused specificaly on storage drives information and benchmarking. With hdparm you can test the read performance by running:
sudo hdparm -tT /dev/sda
Replace /dev/sda with the drive you want to test. If you are not sure you can use lsblk to list the available storage drives.
The two flags -t and -T specify device read test and cache read test.
The result should be sometehing like this:
Timing cached reads: 16656 MB in 2.00 seconds = 8328.37 MB/sec
Timing buffered disk reads: 2364 MB in 3.00 seconds = 787.92 MB/sec
To benchmark the write performance you can use dd:
dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/output.img bs=8k count=256k && rm /tmp/output.img
The result should show you the write speed:
262144+0 records in
262144+0 records out
2147483648 bytes (2.1 GB, 2.0 GiB) copied, 5.4854 s, 392 MB/s
Keep in mind that benhcmarking is not always relevant to real life performance.